Therefore the relationship between ChEs
Therefore, the relationship between ChEs activity and polymorphisms in POT1, TERF1, TERT genes were explored in order to screen susceptible biomarkers in this study.
Materials and methods
Discussion However, genetic toxicity induced by OPs has not been fully investigated so far. Cancer is a type of disease caused by a combination of environmental factors and genetic factors, but regardless of which one causes cancer, genetic damage is the first step. An increasing number of studies have concluded that long-term, low level of exposure to OPs had a close relationship with human tumorigenesis, adverse reproductive outcomes, oxidative stress, and chromosomal aberration (Duan et al., 2017, Jonnalagadda et al., 2012). One study showed that exposure to 1 µM paraoxon could alter the gene expression profile involved in signaling pathways related to chromatin assembly, chromatin regulation and nucleosome integrity (Pamies et al., 2014). Figueroa et al. (2015) studied dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of OPs and found that with most of the increase in disomy rates occurring between the second and third exposure quartiles, suggesting that increased disomy rates were associated with specific DAP metabolites. Callahan et al. (2017) observed that a non-linear positive association between serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and leukocyte telomere length among white participants. OPs can bind to cholinesterase after entering into the body. Those damages caused by OPs would trigger the body\'s own repair proteins to maintain the stability of the genome. DNA-damage reparation genes (such as P53, P21) (Duan et al., 2017) and telomere maintenance genes (such as TERF1, POT1, TERF2, TERT) (Hosgood et al., 2009) are involved in the repairing process. Engeland K found that the p53-p21-DREAM-E2F/CHR pathway controls many of Ceftiofur HCl genes, induces the damaged cells to enter into G1 phase to repair, thereby contributes to cell cycle arrest (Engeland, 2018). TERF1, POT1 and TERT are involved in the maintenance of genome stability, regulating telomerase recruitment and telomere maintenance (Lim et al., 2017). These genetic damages caused by OPs are often accompanied by changes in gene expression levels. Polymorphisms of individual gene may lead to the different abilities of maintenance of chromosomal stability, thus caused different susceptibility to diseases among the individuals. In this study, we mainly explored the relationship between ChEs activity and polymorphisms in POT1, TERF1 and TERT genes. In recent years, ChEs activity has been increasingly used in environmental bioengineering to detect exposure to ChEs inhibitors such as OPs. The ChEs activities of whole blood, red blood cells and plasma were detected in this study. ChEs activity in exposure group was lower than that of in control group and the difference had statistical significance (P < 0.001). The result was consistent with most of previous studies (Jan et al., 2016, Morcillo et al., 2017). It suggests ChEs stability and reliability as an effective biomarker of occupational exposure population. As a single base genetic variation, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the main susceptibility marker of genetic-related diseases. The relationship between gene polymorphisms and cancer has been extensively studied. Choi et al. (2009) found the associations between 35 polymorphisms in telomere maintenance genes (TERT, TRF1, TNKS1, TRF2, RAP1, and POT1) and lung cancer risk and that the TERT rs2736098A haplotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer in the haplotype analysis. Nan et al. (2011) reported that the TERT gene rs2853676 (OR = 1.43), rs2242652 (OR = 1.50), and TERF1 gene rs2981096 (OR = 1.87) were significantly associated with the increased risk of melanoma. It can be seen that the polymorphisms of telomere-related gene in different disease has the modification effect which reflects the genetic predisposition. However, there are few studies on the telomere-related gene polymorphisms association with ChEs activity. Here, we explored the relationship between ChEs activity and genetic polymorphisms including POT1 rs1034794, POT1 rs10250202, TERF1 rs3863242, also TERT rs2736098.