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  • β-Funaltrexamine hydrochloride br Discussion In depression a


    Discussion In depression, an activation of the inflammation process and production of cytokines (including chemotactic cytokines – chemokines) and their receptors may occur due to the stimulation of the immune system. One of the earliest studied and described cytokines in depression is interleukin IL-6, which currently can be treated as a reference in the study of the immune system\'s role in this disease [19]. In the study conducted by the authors, an increase in the IL-6 level was found, regardless of the type of depression episode, wherein the measured IL-6 levels were the highest in patients with severe depression. Moreover, this interleukin level was higher in women than in men. The above results confirm previous results obtained by Crnković et al. and Motivala et al. [20], [21]. These investigators found a significant increase in IL-6 levels in patients with depression versus the control group, but these studies focused mainly on severe depression episodes. Thus, the results of our study are a valuable contribution to knowledge concerning the role of changes in IL-6 levels in patients with various degrees of depression severity [22]. Very few studies on the role of the β-Funaltrexamine hydrochloride in the development of depression have shown chemokine involvement in this process [23], [24]. Moreover, it seems that RANTES and SDF-1 chemokines and their corresponding receptors may play a significant role in depression. Levels of RANTES and SDF-1 chemokines and their receptors, CXCR-4 and CCR-5, in patients with depression measured in our study were higher than those in healthy individuals from the control group. It is worth noting that the highest increase in SDF-1 and RANTES levels occurred in women with severe depression. This result may indicate a greater susceptibility of women to develop depression, versus men. Similar results were obtained by Shen et al. in a study determining chemokine levels in 40 men with a major depressive episode. They showed increased SDF-1 and RANTES chemokine levels in male patients and reduced levels after an antidepressant therapy [25]. However, the authors did not include women in the study or persons diagnosed with mild or moderate depression. On the other hand, they focused on highlighting the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory antidepressants. In another study, Shen et al. also showed an increase in levels of chemokines: RANTES and SDF-1α in patients with major depression and a decrease in the studied chemokines level following treatment with fluoxetine [26]. However, this study involved only 34 patients (18 women and 16 men) with a major depressive episode (17 patients with their first episode and 17 patients with recurrent depression). The authors of this study also found that the duration of the depressive episode was not correlated with the level of the analyzed chemokines. There were also no sex-related differences in the levels of analyzed chemokines. In the subsequent part of the study reported in this article, the authors analyzed levels of CCR-5 and CXCR-4 receptors in patients with various degrees of depression. On the basis of these results, the authors found an increase in CXCR-4 and CCR-5 receptor levels in both women and men versus the control group, regardless of the severity of depression. Moreover, they observed that the CCR-5 receptors level exceeded that of the RANTES chemokine, while the CXCR-4 receptor level was below that of the SDF-1 chemokine. This may indicate higher readiness of the body\'s immune system to interact with RANTES receptors. Moreover, the CCR-5 level was higher in women with a moderate or severe depressive episode versus the CCR-5 level in a mild depressive episode. Higher CCR-5 receptor levels in women indicate the estrogen dependence of CCR-5 receptors. Hence, these receptor levels increase in the depression patients group along with the increase in depression severity. The existence of a relationship between the production and increase in the CCR-5 receptor level and estrogen secretion is well documented in the literature [27], [28].