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  • cetylpyridinium Interestingly Carver Johnson and Kim investi


    Interestingly, Carver, Johnson, and Kim (2016) investigated a polymorphism in the OPRM1 μ-opioid receptor gene for its role in sensitivity to social contexts. The G allele of this polymorphism was associated with higher levels of sensitivity. The authors found significant interactions, e.g. the negative impact of childhood adversity on personality was greater among G carriers than among AA homozygotes within measures of agreeableness, interdependence, anger proneness, hostility, authentic pride, life engagement, and an index of (mostly negative) feelings colouring one's world view. These findings of Carver et al. (2016) support the role of OPRM1 in sensitivity to negative environments. The experimental problem provided in the study refers to the association between the genetic variation of selected polymorphisms (COMT and OPRM1 gene) and temperamental traits among the combat athletes should be considered as innovative. The recognition of the genetic conditioning of temperament traits, especially by sports psychologists, seems to be an essential cetylpyridinium of working with the athletes on each stage of their career. The strength of our results is limited by the fact that no correction for multiple testing was applied, while 76 comparisons were performed to analyse genotype-phenotype associations in the study. If Bonferroni correction was used, no association would remain significant with the corrected threshold p-value equal to 0.05/76=0.0006.
    Conflict of interest statement
    Introduction Individuals with alexithymia are characterized by difficulties in identifying and describing one's own emotions, lacking of imagination, and an externally oriented thinking style (Taylor, 1984). In most of cases, the difficulties of alexithymia are associated with psychiatric symptoms (Chen et al., 2017; Hamaideh, 2018; Khosravani et al., 2017) and impairments in social skills such as decision making (Shah et al., 2016; Zhang et al., 2017) and empathic responses (Grynberg et al., 2010). The difficulties of alexithymia varied among individuals. Studies indicated that the difficulties of alexithymia partly attribute to one's genetic predispositions (Jorgensen et al., 2007; Picardi et al., 2011). Alexithymia is related to abnormal emotional processing. Specifically, the difficulty in identifying one’s own emotions partly attributes to deficits in emotion processing (da Silva et al., 2017; Zamariola et al., 2018). When individuals showed deficits in emotional awareness, emotional self-regulation, and emotion automatic processing, they often displayed high levels of difficulty in identifying their own feelings (da Silva et al., 2017; Donges and Suslow, 2017; Zamariola et al., 2018). As such, it was possible that there was overlap on the genetic predispositions between alexithymia and emotional processing. So far, studies showed that emotional processing is associated with the availabilities of dopamine (Laviolette, 2007; Okita et al., 2016; Wacker, 2017) and serotonin (Matias et al., 2017; Merens et al., 2007). In this study, considering the link of alexithymia and emotional processing and the roles of dopamine and serotonin in emotional processing, we investigated the contributions of two functional genes (i.e., the serotonin transporter gene and catechol-O– methyltransferase enzyme gene) in dopamine and serotonin pathways to alexithymia. Alexithymia and depression share substantial phenotypic variances and biological foundation. The patients with high alexithymia scores often have severe depressive symptoms (Karayagiz and Basturk, 2016; Khosravani et al., 2017; Marchesi et al., 2015). Meanwhile, the subjects with depression often also display difficulties in describing and identify their feelings (Bonnet et al., 2012; Farges et al., 2004). Evidence has indicated a 0.65 genetic correlation between alexithymia and depression (Picardi et al., 2011). It seemed therefore that certain predisposing genes risking for depression also contribute to the difficulties of alexithymia. Moreover, studies up to date have showed that the genes such as the serotonin transporter gene and catechol-O-methyltransferase enzyme gene are related to risk of depression (Gong et al., 2017; Karg et al., 2011). Therefore, given the overlaps on biological foundation and phenotypic variances between alexithymia and depression, it was possible that the serotonin transporter gene cetylpyridinium (SLC6A4) and catechol-O-methyltransferase enzyme gene (COMT) underpinned the difficulties of alexithymia.