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  • The genes corresponding to TVAG TVAG TVAG TVAG


    The genes corresponding to TVAG_263740, TVAG_487600, TVAG_282090, TVAG_170370, and TVAG_148010 seem to be the less expressed, and undetectable by proteomics approach. In comparison, in other T. vaginalis strains, and experimental conditions, they show very few or null EST\'s reports [4].
    Concluding remarks T. vaginalis is characterized by multiple gene copies. It is believed, that this multiplicity provides to this parasite the capability of adapting to environmental changes where trophozoites grow. In addition, T. vaginalis strains or isolates show variable degree of virulence, adhesion capacity and drug resistance. These phenotypes certainly might depend on the ICI 118,551 hydrochloride of many proteins, involving enolase. We found that seven out of nine enolase genes annotated in TrichDB, are closely related and should have been derived from a common ancestor. Furthermore, the seven related genes contain the cis promoter elements in 5′and 3′UTR sequences, commonly observed in expressed genes in T. vaginalis. Furthermore, we found that the products of these seven genes contain functional domains, for performing both enzymatic activity and plasminogen binding. The other two genes annotated as enolase, are neither closely related to the rest of the group, neither their products show functional domains, so they might be either pseudogenes, or might perform a different function on parasite cells, if they were expressed. Regarding the expression, we could detect peptides corresponding only to three functional genes, at different iron concentration conditions. Enolases from T. vaginalis, show distinctive sequence characteristics within one of the active site loops and a unique N-terminal region (conserved solely in enolases from this parasite) which in conjunction offer new perspectives for both drug discovery, vaccination and diagnosis against the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease trichomonosis. The following are the supplementary data related to this article.
    Funding information We thank financial support from Fondo Sectorial de Innovación Secretaría de Economía-CONACyT (FINNOVA), Bonos para la Innovación, grant Number \"216767 “Desarrollo de Fármacos para el tratamiento de la infección de transmisión sexual Tricomoniasis, Fase Preclínica”, SIP-IPN grants 20140317, 20150391 and 20160239. ICYT-DF grants PICSA 10-19. Beca de Estudios de Doctorado CONACyT No. 263610/226088.
    Introduction Cysticercosis is a neglected, zoonotic, parasitic disease that affects humans and pigs in rural communities throughout the world, with disease burden being especially pronounced in areas where pigs are free-roaming and where sanitation is lacking. Cysticercosis is estimated to affect 50 million people and to be responsible for 50,000 deaths per year worldwide (World Health Organization et al., 2005), with most morbidity and mortality being associated with infection with Taenia solium, although Taenia asiatica has recently been posited to play a role as well (Galan-Puchades and Fuentes, 2013; World Health Organization et al., 2005). T. solium has a complex multi-host lifecycle whereby tapeworm eggs that are formed in the gastrointestinal tract of humans are excreted via defecation before eventually being ingested by pigs, where they hatch and become encysted in the muscles, brain, and other organs of the porcine host. This lifecycle is completed when a definitive human host is exposed to T. solium larvae via the ingestion of raw or undercooked cyst-laden pork. In regions of the world lacking proper sanitation, however, humans can also be exposed to T. solium via the accidental ingestion of egg-containing human feces. In such instances, the eggs can make their way to the muscles, subcutaneous tissue, or even the human brain. The latter disease state is called “neurocysticercosis” (NCC) and it is the most serious condition associated with T. solium as well as the main cause of adult-onset epilepsy in low and middle income countries (Bern et al., 1999; Garcia et al., 2005; Ndimubanzi et al., 2010; Prasad et al., 2011). Despite this disease burden, T. solium has been declared as being potentially eradicable (Center for Disease and Prevention, 1993; Schantz et al., 1993) owing in part to the fact that while different wild animals have been found to be infected with cysticercosis, only domesticated pigs serve as reservoirs for human infection. Indeed, T. solium has been eliminated from many developed countries through the improvement of sanitation conditions and through the implementation of animal and meat inspections at slaughter houses (Engels et al., 2003; Willingham and Engels, 2006). Unfortunately, there are still challenges pertaining to diagnosis and control of the parasite throughout much of the developing world.