Results from H also complement
Results from H5 also complement work of the AICPA Board of Examiners, which has concluded “newly licensed CPAs must demonstrate higher-order skills such as critical thinking, problem solving, analytical ability, and skepticism more frequently. It is critically important that newly licensed CPAs are competent in recognizing issues, identifying errors, challenging assumptions, and applying both professional judgment and skepticism,” (AICPA, 2014; Pg. 7). To communicate with educators regarding knowledge and skills candidates will need to function as a newly licensed CPA, the Board of Examiners has recently developed a CPA Exam Blueprint that maps each section of the newly revised CPA exam to the Modified Bloom's Taxonomy (see Fig. 3).
As shown in Fig. 3, all four sections of the newly revised CPA Exam will require mostly higher-order skills (applying/analyzing/evaluating/creating), as opposed to lower-order skills (remembering/understanding), with much as 70% for audit and attestation (AUD), 85% for business environment and concepts (BEC), 90% for financial accounting and reporting (FAR), and 75% for regulation (REG). Similar to findings of the current study, the newly devised CPA Exam Blueprint recognizes that higher-order thinking is an increasingly relevant skill demanded of entry-level CPA's. Consequently, accounting curriculums, including AP accounting, should be carefully designed with minimal emphasis on remembering and understanding and proportionally higher elements of application, analysis, and evaluation.
A notable outcome from the H5 analyses was that English Language was similar in significance to Calculus AB with regard to CPA exam performance. Although other studies (Acerman et al., 2013; Gruman, 2013), have shown AP English Language to be significant to academic performance in college, the current research is the first to show similar results with respect to CPA exam. This finding may open the door for reversal of stereotypes that the accounting major is best suited for students strong in mathematics. Future studies could extend the compelling possibility that students with high aptitudes in English could enjoy a competitive edge in accounting programs of study.
In porous media of oil and gas reservoirs, a considerable amount of formation water inevitably coexists with a hydrocarbon system , , . Previous studies show that water and hydrocarbon system have low intersolubility under low-temperature and low-pressure conditions. Thus, effects of polar 8-Bromo-cGMP, sodium salt water can be neglected in conventional simulation and calculation , , . With consideration to similarities in properties of different hydrocarbons, it is not necessary to highlight the impacts of strong polar compounds in selecting optimal thermodynamic equation of state to determine thermodynamic properties. It is worth noticing that higher intersolubility can be observed between water and hydrocarbon system under higher temperature. It is especially true in high-temperature and high-pressure condensate gas reservoirs , , , , , , , , , , , . Accordingly, in the study of phase features of formations fluids contained in condensate gas reservoirs with rich condensate water in gaseous state, the impacts of polar compound water on thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbons should be considered. Presently, the SRK, PR and virial equations of state are extensively used thermodynamic equations of state in oil and gas industry . For meeting the specific demands related to calculations of thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbons and polar compounds, modifications have been made in these equations of state in the following three aspects. ① Volume parts of some equations of state relevant or irrelevant to temperatures were modified. Such equations state include PR–Peneloux, PR–Peneloux (T), SRK–Peneloux and SRK–Peneloux (T). ② Limitation on acentric factors was modified. These equations of state include PR78 and PR78–Peneloux. ③ Conventional mixing rules were modified, such as the Huron–Vidal mixing rules. Although the modified equation of state are still simple and rapid, like the original ones, and provide acceptable solutions to thermodynamic properties of polar compounds, they may have large deviations in the calculation of certain thermodynamic properties of polar compounds, since hydrogen bond association of polar molecules is not taken into account . To establish a equation of state applicable to various polar and hydrogen bond compounds (hydrocarbons, water, alcohols and others) in oil and gas industry, the Shell Research Centre in Amsterdam proposed the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state for the first time . In addition to maintaining the simplified format of the original SRK equation of state, the newly proposed equation of state contains additional association items for hydrogen bonds to enhance calculation accuracy for physical properties of molecules with inter-molecular association , , , . The authors reviewed the applicability and accuracy of CPA equation of state to determine the thermodynamic properties of polar compound water, and analyzed the weaknesses of SRK, SRK–Peneloux and PR equations of state in calculating the thermodynamic properties of polar compounds, so as to provide technical supports for engineering applications of CPA in oil and gas industry.